The Red and the White: A Family Saga of the American West
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Publication Date: Status: Available. Approximately Indians were killed, most of whom were women, children and elderly men. Army attacked a different band led by Chief Heavy Runner, to whom the United States government had previously promised their protection. This resulted in public outrage and a long-term shift towards a "Peace Policy" by the Federal Government, as advocated by President Ulysses S.
Grant kept the Bureau of Indian Affairs as a division of the Department of the Interior although the War Department was trying to regain control.
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He then appointed men recommended by various religious clergy—including Quakers and Methodists —as Indian agents , in hopes that they would be free of the corruption he had previously found in the department. Relations between the Niitsitapi Confederacy composed of Blackfeet , Blood , and Piegan tribes, although frequently referred to simply as Blackfeet and white settlers in Montana Territory had been largely hostile for years, as European Americans encroached on Native American territory and resources.
In turn, some Blackfeet stole horses and raided white settlements. Rather than a widespread, organized conflict, such as Red Cloud's War ,  the relations between the groups were marked by a series of unrelated clashes. By , the Blackfeet had largely retreated north of the Marias River in the territory. Prior to his life in the West , Malcolm Clarke had attended West Point until he was expelled for fighting.
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Clarke found success trading with Blackfeet tribes, and eventually married a Native woman named Coth-co-co-na and had four children—Helen, Horace, Nathan, and Isabel. This marriage served as an alliance between Malcolm and the Blackfoot tribe, prolonging his fur trade with the tribe.
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This interpersonal conflict ultimately led to Clarke murdering McKenzie. After the murder, Clarke left the fur trading business out of fear of retribution from other traders, as well as the decline of the fur trade during the s due to the dwindling population of bison. Clarke then moved his family to the Rocky Mountains and undertook ranching with his second wife, a mixed-race Blackfoot woman named Good Singing. They established the Clarke Horse and Cattle Ranch in Two years prior in , Owl Child had stolen horses from Clarke as payback for the loss his own horses, which he blamed on the trader.
There were accounts from Blackfeet claiming Clarke had also raped Owl Child's wife, who was a cousin of Coth-co-co-na. They then proceeded to the house where they shot Clarke in the chest before Owl Child ultimately killed him with an ax. Clarke's other children and his wife took shelter in the house and were unharmed.
Clarke's murder created a climate of unrest in the region, as outraged white settlers demanded the that government protect them and suppress the outlaw Blackfeet.. In response, the U. Army demanded that the Blackfoot Confederacy execute Owl Child, and deliver his body to them in two weeks. Owl Child fled North and joined Mountain Chief's Piegan band,  which—although known for their hostility toward white settlers--, did not conduct raids on the settlements. When the two-week deadline had passed, General Philip Sheridan sent a squadron of cavalry from the Second Cavalry Regiment , led by Major Eugene Baker,   to track down and punish the offending party.
Sheridan ordered:. If the lives and property of the citizens of Montana can best be protected by striking Mountain Chief's band, I want them struck. Tell Baker to strike them hard. Sheridan intended that the squadron conduct a dawn attack on the Piegan village; it had snowed heavily and most of the Blackfeet would be sleeping or staying inside to keep warm. The two sought revenge for their father, and made their expedition known to the press. A command led by Major Eugene M. These scouts were critical to distinguishing between the unfriendly and friendly Piegan bands, as Baker was to refrain from attacking the friendly bands.
Baker needed to wait until Sheridan's division inspector general Colonel James A. You can go to cart and save for later there. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review. Tell us if something is incorrect.
Native American Studies Research Guide: New Books, 2013-2014
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