Development of Personality and Its Theories
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In line with trait theory, which analyses personality differences in terms of individual attitudes and patterns of behaviors, the Five-Factor Model focuses on five broad measures of personality. Openness to Experience A willingness to try new activities, experience different ways of life and to embrace unconventional ideas.
Conscientious people like to be well-organized, punctual and are goal-oriented in their behavior. Extraversion Extraverts are lively, talkative and outgoing. They are confident socialisers and enjoy meeting new people. Low extraversion, or introversion, is characterised by quietness and often shy behavior. Agreeableness Agreeable individuals are cooperative, altruistic and helpful. Low agreeableness results in selfish behavior and increased levels of suspicion or distrust of others.
Neuroticism People experiencing high level of neuroticism tend to worry and experience anxiety. This may lead to anger and frustration when they focus on negatives instead of positives. For instance, agreeableness levels tend to increase as we grow older Donnelan et al, For instance, a study published in Frontiers in Psychology found higher levels of neuroticism in females than males Weisberg et al, Learn more about the five-factor model here.
Can your personality affect your health? This question was the subject of decades of research conducted by two U.
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Since the s, the pair conducted research into the relationship between personality, stress and health, culminating in a book entitled Type A Behavior and Your Heart. Rosenman and Friedman had observed that some of the seats in their patient waiting room were significantly more worn than others. Moreover, the worn areas were in unexpected areas of the seats, such as at the front. They suggested that these seats were occupied by patients who fidgeted as their waited for their appointment.
These anxious patients would also stand and sit more than normal, causing the additional wear on the seats. The cardiologists proposed that this group of patients exhibited Type A personality traits. Type A personalities are more prone to experience stress : they are impatient, often anxious and are susceptible to stress when under pressure.
People in this category contrast with those with Type B traits.
Whilst these findings demonstrate a link between personality and susceptibility to stress, the reliability of the research has subject to criticism, partly due to the role played by the tobacco industry in funding the work. In a subsequent paper, they suggest ways in which those with a Type A personality may opt to alter their behavior and the way in which they respond to stress Rosenman and Friedman, Which Archetype Are You?
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Personality Theories Essay
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Discover your approach to decision-making with the maximizer vs satisficer quiz. A study reveals how the Big Five personality dimensions influence audiences' A look at extraversion as a personality trait. What determines whether a person A study reveals people's sentence construction often reflects their political More on Personality. Psychology approaches, theories and studies explained. Learn More and Sign Up. Struggle to keep conversations alive?
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Theories of Personality Development
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Described below are some of the theories that focus on various aspects of personality development, including cognitive, social and moral development. While many aspects of his theory have not stood the test of time, the central idea remains important today that is, that the children think differently than adults.
Personality Theory And Personality Theories
His theory has made significant contributions in the world of personality development. In his well-known stage theory of psychosexual development, Freud suggested that personality develops in stages that are related to specific erogenous zones. Failure to successfully complete these stages, according to him would lead to personality problems in adulthood.
Despite of lack of support and considerable skepticism from many researchers, he is one of the most researched one. The theory also extends beyond childhood to look at development across the entire lifespan. Building on a two-stage process proposed by Piaget, Kohlberg expanded the theory to include six different stages. While the theory does not accommodate different genders and cultures equally, his theory remains important in the understanding of personality development.